Interaction of noncompetitive inhibitors with an immobilized alpha3beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor investigated by affinity chromatography, quantitative-structure activity relationship analysis, and molecular docking.
J Med Chem. 2004 Jul 29;47(16):4008-21
Jozwiak K, Ravichandran S, Collins JR, Wainer IW
A large number of drug substances act as noncompetitive inhibitors (NCIs) of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) by blocking the ion flux through the channel. An affinity chromatography technique has been developed for investigating the interactions between NCIs and the alpha3beta4 subtype of neuronal nAChR. The data obtained from the chromatographic study were used to construct QSAR models of the NCI-nAChR binding with both electronic and steric parameters observed as important descriptors. A molecular model of the transmembrane domain of the alpha3beta4 subtype of nAChR was constructed and used to simulate the docking of a series of NCIs. A key aspect of the model was the discovery of the cleft produced by the incorporation of the bulky phenylalanine moiety into the nonpolar section of the lumen by the beta4 subunit. Quantitatively, the results of docking simulations modeled the experimental affinity data better than QSAR results. The computational approach, combined with the modeling of NCI-nAChR interaction by affinity chromatography, can be used to predict possible toxicities and adverse interactions.
On-line screening of conformationally constrained nicotines and anabasines for agonist activity at the alpha3beta4- and alpha4beta2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using immobilized receptor-based liquid chromatographic stationary phases
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Dec 25;813(1-2):235-40
Moaddel R, Jozwiak K, Yamaguchi R, Cobello C, Whittington K, Sarkar TK, Basak S, Wainer IW
Liquid chromatography columns containing stationary phases based upon immobilized nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were used to screen a series of conformationally constrained nicotine and anabasine derivatives for agonist activity. The alpha3beta4 nAChR and alpha4beta2 nAChR subtypes were used to prepare the chromatographic columns and [(3)H] epibatidine dihydrochloride ([(3)H] EB) was used as the marker ligand. Single displacement experiments were conducted with the test ligands and with nicotine and carbachol. Nicotine was used as an internal control for compounds with agonist activity and carbachol was used as an internal control for compounds with very weak agonistic activity (K(d) > 4700 nM for alpha3beta4). The displacement of [(3)H] EB by each of the test compounds and internal controls was calculated and expressed as Deltaml. Functional studies were then conducted using a stably transfected cell line that expresses the alpha3beta4 nAChR and EC(50) values were determined for the test compounds and the internal controls. A comparison of the Deltaml and EC(50) values indicated that 9/11 compounds had been correctly identified as agonists or non-agonists of the alpha3beta4 nAChR. A similar comparison could not be made for the alpha4beta2 nAChR, since the intact cell line was not available for testing. The results of the study suggest that the immobilized nAChR columns can be used for the rapid on-line screening of compounds for their relative affinities for the immobilized receptor and as an initial determination of qualitative functional activities.
Coaxing a pyridine nucleus to give up its aromaticity: synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel conformationally restricted analogues of nicotine and anabasine
J Med Chem. 2004 Dec 30;47(27):6691-701
Sarkar TK, Basak S, Wainer I, Moaddel R, Yamaguchi R, Jozwiak K, Chen HT, Lin CC
A series of novel nicotine and anabasine related conformationally restricted compounds including those with pi-bonds in the connecting tether were synthesized following the hitherto unprecedented phenylsulfanyl group assisted generation of pyridine o-quinodimethane intermediates and their trapping by an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. Pharmacological characterization of some of these analogues at activating alpha3beta4 nAChRs was investigated, and constrained anabasine analogues 35 and 43 as well as constrained nicotine analogue 42 were found to exhibit moderately potent nicotinic agonist activity. Of special note is the fact that the pyrrolidinic nitrogen in these compounds is bound to a carbomethoxy group and, therefore, is not free to be protonated unlike all the known analogues of nicotine and anabasine, specifically designed as nAChRs agonists/antagonists. The structure-activity relationship studies indicate that when pi-cation interaction is absent, the position of chlorine atom in the pyridine ring and steric bulk at the connecting tether between the pyridine and pyrrolidine ring of the constrained nicotinic ligands are important descriptors for their binding affinity at alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta4 nAChRs as well as the subtype selectivity issue. These findings are likely to improve our understanding of the structural requirements for selectivity, which, at present, is probably the most important goal in the field of nicotinic ligands.