The Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide, a Positive Allosteric Modulator of alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Mice
Anesth Analg. 2015 Nov;121(5):1369-77. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000000902.
Bagdas D, Targowska-Duda KM, López JJ, Perez EG, Arias HR, Damaj MI
BACKGROUND: Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) facilitate endogenous neurotransmission and/or enhance the efficacy of agonists without directly acting on the orthosteric binding sites. In this regard, selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor type II PAMs display antinociceptive activity in rodent chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. This study investigates whether 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), a new putative α7-selective type II PAM, attenuates experimental inflammatory and neuropathic pains in mice.
METHODS: We tested the activity of PAM-2 after intraperitoneal administration in 3 pain assays: the carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain, the complete Freund adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain, and the chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in mice. We also tested whether PAM-2 enhanced the effects of the selective α7 agonist choline in the mouse carrageenan test given intrathecally. Because the experience of pain has both sensory and affective dimensions, we also evaluated the effects of PAM-2 on acetic acid-induced aversion by using the conditioned place aversion test.
RESULTS: We observed that systemic administration of PAM-2 significantly reversed mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models in a dose- and time-dependent manner without motor impairment. In addition, by attenuating the paw edema in inflammatory models, PAM-2 showed anti-inflammatory properties. The antinociceptive effect of PAM-2 was inhibited by the selective competitive antagonist methyllycaconitine, indicating that the effect is mediated by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, PAM-2 enhanced the antiallodynic and anti-inflammatory effects of choline, a selective α7 agonist, in the mouse carrageenan test. PAM-2 was also effective in reducing acetic acid-induced aversion in the conditioned place aversion assay.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the administration of PAM-2, a new α7-selective type II PAM, reduces the neuropathic and inflammatory pain sensory and affective behaviors in the mouse. Thus, this drug may have therapeutic applications in the treatment and management of chronic pain.
Comparative molecular field analysis and molecular dynamics studies of alpha/beta hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6) inhibitors
J Mol Model. 2015 Oct;21(10):2789. doi: 10.1007/s00894-015-2789-8. Epub 2015 Sep 8.
Kaczor AA, Targowska-Duda KM, Patel JZ, Laitinen T, Parkkari T, Adams Y, Nevalainen TJ, Poso A
The endocannabinoid system remains an attractive molecular target for pharmacological intervention due to its roles in the central nervous system in learning, thinking, emotional function, regulation of food intake or pain sensation, as well as in the peripheral nervous system, where it modulates the action of cardiovascular, immune, metabolic or reproductive function. α/β hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6)-an enzyme forming part of the endocannabinoid system-is a newly discovered post-genomic protein acting as a 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) serine hydrolase. We have recently reported a series of 1,2,5-thiadiazole carbamates as potent and selective ABHD6 inhibitors. Here, we present comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and molecular dynamics studies of these compounds. First, we performed a homology modeling study of ABHD6 based on the assumption that the catalytic triad of ABHD6 comprises Ser148-His306-Asp 278 and the oxyanion hole is formed by Met149 and Phe80. A total of 42 compounds was docked to the homology model using the Glide module from the Schrödinger suite of software and the selected docking poses were used for CoMFA alignment. A model with the following statistics was obtained: R (2) = 0.98, Q (2) = 0.55. In order to study the molecular interactions of the inhibitors with ABHD6 in detail, molecular dynamics was performed with the Desmond program. It was found that, during the simulations, the hydrogen bond between the inhibitor carbonyl group and the main chain of Phe80 is weakened, whereas a new hydrogen bond with the side chain of Ser148 is formed, facilitating the possible formation of a covalent bond. Graphical Abstract Left-right: Docking pose of 1 in the binding pocket of α/β hydrolase domain containing 6 (ABHD6) selected for molecular alignment; CoMFA steric and electrostatic contour fields; changes in potential energy of the complex during simulations for the complex of 6 and ABHD6.
The water-catalyzed mechanism of the ring-opening reaction of glucose
Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2015 Sep 7;17(33):21622-9. doi: 10.1039/c5cp03357h. Epub 2015 Jul 30.
Plazinski W, Plazinska A, Drach M
The hexopyranose mutarotation is an important focus for carbohydrate chemistry for more than 150 years. The paper describes the results of advanced computational studies aimed at elucidating the ring-opening reaction of glucose. Molecular simulations based on the combination of the DFT method with the molecular dynamics formalism allowed for a detailed insight into the mechanism of the process accompanied by the information of the kinetic and dynamic nature. The results indicate that the process is initiated by deprotonation of the anomeric hydroxyl group by water molecules and the subsequent proton transfer to the ring oxygen atom. The latter event has been identified as a 'bottleneck' of the process triggering the ring cleavage. The most time-consuming steps of the ring-opening reaction are the orientational rearrangements of water molecule(s) participating in the proton transfer(s) and the final extension of the newly-formed aldehyde chain. The orientational preferences of the aldehyde group present in the acyclic form of d-hexopyranoses are responsible for the anomeric equilibrium characteristics.
The biocompatibility of carbon hydroxyapatite/beta-glucan composite for bone tissue engineering studied with Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015 Oct;407(25):7775-85. doi: 10.1007/s00216-015-8943-4. Epub 2015 Aug 16.
Sroka-Bartnicka A, Kimber JA, Borkowski L, Pawlowska M, Polkowska I, Kalisz G, Belcarz A, Jozwiak K, Ginalska G, Kazarian SG
The spectroscopic approaches of FTIR imaging and Raman mapping were applied to the characterisation of a new carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite developed for bone tissue engineering. The composite is an artificial bone material with an apatite-forming ability for the bone repair process. Rabbit bone samples were tested with an implanted bioactive material for a period of several months. Using spectroscopic and chemometric methods, we were able to determine the presence of amides and phosphates and the distribution of lipid-rich domains in the bone tissue, providing an assessment of the composite's bioactivity. Samples were also imaged in transmission using an infrared microscope combined with a focal plane array detector. CaF2 lenses were also used on the infrared microscope to improve spectral quality by reducing scattering artefacts, improving chemometric analysis. The presence of collagen and lipids at the bone/composite interface confirmed biocompatibility and demonstrate the suitability of FTIR microscopic imaging with lenses in studying these samples. It confirmed that the composite is a very good background for collagen growth and increases collagen maturity with the time of the bone growth process. The results indicate the bioactive and biocompatible properties of this composite and demonstrate how Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging have been used as an effective tool for tissue characterisation.
Novel synthesis scheme and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of a panel of (E)-2-aryl-1-cyano-1-nitroethenes
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2015 Jul 30:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Boguszewska-Czubara A, Lapczuk-Krygier A, Rykala K, Biernasiuk A, Wnorowski A, Popiolek L, Maziarka A, Hordyjewska A, Jasiński R
Drug resistance has become a major concern in the field of infection management, therefore searching for new antibacterial agents is getting more challenging. Our study presents an optimized and eco-friendly synthesis scheme for a panel of nitroalkenes bearing various functional groups in the aromatic moiety and bromine or cyano substituents in 1 position of nitrovinyl moiety. The presence of nitrolefine group outside the ring minimalizes genotoxic properties while conjugation of aryl group with nitrovinyl moiety increases stability of the compounds. Then our research focused on evaluation of biological properties of such obtained (E)-2-aryl-1-cyano-1-nitroethenes. As they exhibit strong bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against reference bacteria and yeast species with no detectable cytotoxicity towards cultured human HepG2 and HaCaT cells, they could be promising candidates for the replacement of traditional nitrofurane-containing antibacterial drugs. Nevertheless, validation of the obtained data in an in vivo model and additional safety studies on mutagenicity are still required.
The antidepressant-like activity of nicotine, but not of 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide, is regulated by the nicotinic receptor beta4 subunit
Neurochem Int. 2015 Aug;87:110-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2015.06.006. Epub 2015 Jun 23
Arias HR, Targowska-Duda KM, Feuerbach D, Jozwiak K
The current study compares the antidepressant-like effect elicited by nicotine between wild-type (β4+/+) and knockout (β4-/-) mice, and subsequently, the effect of 3-furan-2-yl-N-p-tolyl-acrylamide (PAM-2), a positive allosteric modulator of α7 nicotinic receptors, on the previously determined activity of nicotine. Mice from each sex were injected daily with nicotine base (0.2 mg/kg; s.c.) or co-administered with PAM-2 (1.0 mg/kg; i.p.) for three weeks. Forced swim tests were performed to determine the acute (Day 1), subchronic (Day 7), and chronic (Days 14 and 21) effects of the drugs, as well as their residual effects after treatment cessation (Days 28 and 35). Our results indicate that nicotine mediates antidepressant-like activity after acute, subchronic, and chronic treatments in β4+/+, but not β4-/-, mice, and that these effects are not mediated by unspecific locomotor stimulation. Nicotine co-administered with PAM-2 produces antidepressant-like activity in both β4+/+ and β4-/- mice, except after the acute treatment of β4-/- mice, and decreases locomotor activity. This suggests that although the β4 subunit regulates the antidepressant-like activity of nicotine it does not affect the activity elicited by PAM-2 when is co-administered with nicotine. The residual antidepressant-like activity of PAM-2+nicotine was observed only in female mice, suggesting gender-specific differences. Our findings clearly indicate that β4-containing nAChRs play an important role in the antidepressant-like activity elicited by nicotine but they are not essential for the modulatory activity of PAM-2. In fact, PAM-2 inhibits α4β4 and α3β4 AChRs at higher concentration ranges compared to that for the PAM activity previously found at the α7 AChR.
Coronaridine congeners inhibit human alpha3beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by interacting with luminal and non-luminal sites
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015 May 25. pii: S1357-2725(15)00136-3. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2015.05.015. [Epub ahead of print]
Arias HR, Targowska-Duda KM, Feuerbach D, Jozwiak K
To characterize the interaction of coronaridine congeners with human (h) α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), structural and functional approaches were used. The Ca2+ influx results established that coronaridine congeners noncompetitively inhibit hα3β4 AChRs with the following potency (IC50's in μM) sequence: (-)-ibogamine (0.62±0.23) ∼ (+)-catharanthine (0.68±0.10)>(-)-ibogaine (0.95±0.10)>(±)-18-methoxycoronaridine [(±)-18-MC] (1.47±0.21)>(-)-voacangine (2.28±0.33)>(±)-18-methylaminocoronaridine (2.62±0.57μM) ∼ (±)-18-hydroxycoronaridine (2.81±0.54)>(-)-noribogaine (6.82±0.78). A good linear correlation (r2=0.771) between the calculated IC50 values and their polar surface area was found, suggesting that this is an important structural feature for its activity. The radioligand competition results indicate that (±)-18-MC and (-)-ibogaine partially inhibit [3H]imipramine binding by an allosteric mechanism. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and in silico mutation results suggest that protonated (-)-18-MC binds to luminal [i.e., β4-Phe255 (phenylalanine/valine ring; position 13'), and α3-Leu250 and β4-Leu251 (leucine ring; position 9')], non-luminal, and intersubunit sites. The pharmacophore model suggests that nitrogens from the ibogamine core as well as methylamino, hydroxyl, and methoxyl moieties at position 18 form hydrogen bonds. Collectively our data indicate that coronaridine congeners inhibit hα3β4 AChRs by blocking the ion channel's lumen and probably by additional negative allosteric mechanisms by interacting with a series of non-luminal sites.
Agonist binding by the beta2-adrenergic receptor: an effect of receptor conformation on ligand association-dissociation characteristics
Eur Biophys J. 2015 Mar 1. [Epub ahead of print]
Plazinska A, Plazinski W, Jozwiak K
The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is a physiologically important transmembrane protein that is a target for drugs used for treatment of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Study of the first steps of ligand recognition and the molecular basis of ligand binding to the orthosteric site is essential for understanding the pharmacological properties of the receptor. In this work we investigated the characteristic features of the agonist association-dissociation process to and from the different conformational forms of β2-AR by use of advanced molecular modeling techniques. The investigation was focused on estimating the free energy profiles (FEPs) corresponding to the process of a full agonist ((R,R)-fenoterol) and an inverse agonist (carazolol) binding and unbinding to and from β2-AR. The two different conformational forms of β2-AR, i.e. active β2-AR-PDB: 3P0G and inactive β2-AR-PDB: 2RH1 were included in this stage of the study. We revealed several significant qualitative differences between FEPs characteristic of both conformational forms. Both FEPs suggest the existence of three transient binding sites in the extracellular domain of β2-AR. Comparison of the residues surrounding these transient binding sites in both β2-AR states revealed the importance of the aromatic residues F194, H932.64, H2966.58, and H178 (extracellular part of β2-AR) in the early stages of the binding process. In addition, slightly different exit and entry paths are preferred by the ligand molecule in the extracellular part of β2-AR, depending on the conformation of the receptor.
Activation of beta2-adrenergic receptor by (R,R')-4'-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol inhibits proliferation and motility of melanoma cells
Cell Signal. 2015 Feb 19. pii: S0898-6568(15)00058-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.02.012. [Epub ahead of print]
Wnorowski A, Sadowska M, Paul RK, Singh NS, Boguszewska-Czubara A, Jimenez L, Abdelmohsen K, Toll L, Jozwiak K, Bernier M, Wainer IW
(R,R')-4'-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol [(R,R')-MNF] is a highly-selective β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) agonist. Incubation of a panel of human-derived melanoma cell lines with (R,R')-MNF resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of motility as assessed by in vitro wound healing and xCELLigence migration and invasion assays. Activity of (R,R')-MNF positively correlated with the β2-AR expression levels across tested cell lines. The anti-motility activity of (R,R')-MNF was inhibited by the β2-AR antagonist ICI-118,551 and the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724 mimicked the ability of (R,R')-MNF to inhibit migration of melanoma cell lines in culture, highlighting the importance of cAMP for this phenomenon. (R,R')-MNF caused significant inhibition of cell growth in β2-AR-expressing cells as monitored by radiolabelled thymidine incorporation and xCELLigence system. The MEK/ERK cascade functions in cellular proliferation, and constitutive phosphorylation of MEK and ERK at their active sites was significantly reduced upon β2-AR activation with (R,R')-MNF. Protein synthesis was inhibited concomitantly both with increased eEF2 phosphorylation and lower expression of tumor cell regulators, EGF receptors, cyclin A and MMP-9. Taken together, these results identified β2-AR as a novel potential target for melanoma management, and (R,R')-MNF as an efficient trigger of anti-tumorigenic cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling in β2-AR-expressing lesions.
Pharmacological and molecular studies on the interaction of varenicline with different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. Potential mechanism underlying partial agonism at human alpha4beta2 and alpha3beta4 subtypes
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Dec 2. pii: S0005-2736(14)00389-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2014.11.003
Arias HR, Feuerbach D, Targowska-Duda K, Kaczor AA, Poso A, Jozwiak K
To determine the structural components underlying differences in affinity, potency, and selectivity of varenicline for several human (h) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), functional and structural experiments were performed. The Ca2+ influx results established that: (a) varenicline activates (μM range) nAChR subtypes with the following rank sequence: hα7>hα4β4>hα4β2>hα3β4≫>hα1β1γδ; (b) varenicline binds to nAChR subtypes with the following affinity order (nM range): hα4β2~hα4β4>hα3β4>hα7≫>Torpedo α1β1γδ. The molecular docking results indicating that more hydrogen bond interactions are apparent for α4-containing nAChRs in comparison to other nAChRs may explain the observed higher affinity; and that (c) varenicline is a full agonist at hα7 (101%) and hα4β4 (93%), and a partial agonist at hα4β2 (20%) and hα3β4 (45%), relative to (±)-epibatidine. The allosteric sites found at the extracellular domain (EXD) of hα3β4 and hα4β2 nAChRs could explain the partial agonistic activity of varenicline on these nAChR subtypes. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the interaction of varenicline to each allosteric site decreases the capping of Loop C at the hα4β2 nAChR, suggesting that these allosteric interactions limit the initial step in the gating process. In conclusion, we propose that in addition to hα4β2 nAChRs, hα4β4 nAChRs can be considered as potential targets for the clinical activity of varenicline, and that the allosteric interactions at the hα3β4- and hα4β2-EXDs are alternative mechanisms underlying partial agonism at these nAChRs.